U.S. EPA Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments Program. The representative effect concentration selected from among the high no-effect-concentrations for Hyalella azteca and Chironomus riparius are presented in EPA (1996). It is a concentration above which statistically significant adverse biological effects always occur. Effects may occur below these levels. The majority of the data are for freshwater sediments.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 1996. Calculation and evaluation of sediment effect concentrations for the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus riparius. EPA 905/R96/008. Great Lakes National Program Office, Chicago, IL. (http://www.cerc.usgs.gov/clearinghouse/data/brdcerc0004.html) ( http://www.cerc.usgs.gov/pubs/sedtox/sec-dev.html )